::How To Meditate I - What is Meditation ::

ในห้อง 'ทวีป อเมริกา' ตั้งกระทู้โดย สุชีโว, 22 พฤษภาคม 2014.

  1. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

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    (cont)
    “That’s common sense,” said Thupten Jinpa, a Tibetan Buddhist scholar and the main English translator to the Dalai Lama. “I grew up as a monk, so for me, the most powerful evidence is really the anecdotal evidence in my own personal life.”

    But as an academic with a PhD in religion, Jinpa doesn’t rely only on common sense or personal experience — he also works with psychologists on scientific research. In 2015, he co-authored a study titled “A wandering mind is a less caring mind,” which found that reducing mind-wandering through meditation was associated with increased caring behavior, both for oneself and for others.

    Although Jinpa believes mindfulness is important, he told me that when it comes to making us more altruistic, there’s another type of practice that’s even more effective: loving-kindness or compassion meditation.

    The science behind loving-kindness and compassion meditation and their effects on altruism
    Two other meditation practices — loving-kindness meditation and its close cousin, compassion meditation — have interesting science behind them, too. These practices, which involve concentrated attention to cultivate certain qualities, have been growing in popularity in the West over the past couple of decades thanks to American teachers like Sharon Salzberg. And evidence shows they can change your neural circuitry even faster than mindfulness meditation.

    The meditation for loving-kindness typically looks like this: You repeat certain phrases in your head, such as “may I be safe,” “may I be healthy,” or “may my life unfold with ease.” After you’ve wished these things for yourself, you widen the circle of caring, wishing the same things for the people you love, then for people you feel neutrally about, and then for all living beings — including those who get on your nerves or have hurt you. (One compassion meditation works much the same way, except instead of wishing that people be safe and healthy and full of ease, you wish that they be free from suffering.)

    So, how does loving-kindness or compassion meditation affect the brain, and in turn, affect our behavior?

    Before we answer that question, it’s important to note that loving-kindness and compassion meditation — which involve cultivating love for people who are suffering — are not the same thing as empathy, even though we often conflate these concepts.
    Empathy is when you share the feelings of other people. If other people are feeling pain, you feel pain, too — literally.

    Not so with compassion. In a 2013 study at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany, researchers put volunteers in a brain scanner, showed them gruesome videos of people suffering, and asked them to empathize with the sufferers. The fMRI showed activated neural circuits centered around the insula — exactly the circuits that get activated when we’re in pain ourselves.
     
  2. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

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    (cont)
    Compare that with what happened when the researchers took a different group of volunteers and gave them eight hours of training in compassion, then showed them the graphic videos. A totally different set of brain circuits lit up: those for love and warmth, the sort a parent feels for a child.

    When we feel empathy, we feel like we’re suffering, and that’s upsetting. In the short term, it can cause us to tune out to help alleviate our own feelings of distress. And in the long term, it can cause serious burnout, as many a nurse and social worker can attest.

    “A little bit of empathy is important, because we need to be able to detect another person’s suffering in order to be helpful,” Richard Davidson, a prominent University of Wisconsin-Madison neuroscientist who’s spent decades studying meditation in the lab, told me. “But empathy by itself can be toxic.”

    Amazingly, compassion — because it fosters positive feelings — actually attenuates the empathetic distress that can cause burnout, as neuroscientist Tania Singer has demonstrated in her lab.

    In other words, practicing compassion or loving-kindness doesn’t just help us make other people happier; it makes us happier, too.

    “Loving-kindness also boosts the connections between the brain’s circuits for joy and happiness and the prefrontal cortex, a zone critical for guiding behavior,” Davidson writes in Altered Traits, his authoritative 2017 book on the neuroscience of meditation, which he co-authored with Daniel Goleman. “And the greater the increase in the connection between these regions, the more altruistic a person becomes following compassion meditation training.”

    In fact, one fMRI study showed that in very experienced practitioners (think Tibetan yogis), compassion meditation actually triggers activity in the brain’s motor centers, preparing their bodies to physically move in order to help whoever is suffering, even as they’re still lying in the brain scanner.

    Given such evidence, Jinpa believes it’s clear that we can strengthen our compassion through concrete practices, just as we strengthen our muscles through exercise. Working out of Stanford University’s Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education in 2009, he created the Compassion Cultivation Training, an eight-week course designed with input from neuroscientists and psychologists. Blending formal meditation with other contemplative practices, the course is now taught around the world.

    Why thinking in terms of “moral obligation” may not be appropriate here
    After I started wondering if we’re morally obligated to meditate, I soon realized that’s a very Western and Judeo-Christian way of thinking about it. Growing up, I’d had to memorize the Ten Commandments and a long litany of sins, and my mind is still conditioned to think in terms of commandments and obligations.
     
  3. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
    14 กรกฎาคม 2010
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    (cont)
    But Eastern traditions like Buddhism or Confucianism aren’t grounded in commandments that come from a divine being. Among Buddhists, you’re more likely to hear about “skillful” and “unskillful” means for minimizing suffering and maximizing the possibility for liberation.

    “The ‘everybody ought’ language — that wouldn’t be the language they’d use,” Evan Thompson, a University of British Columbia professor who specializes in Asian philosophical traditions, told me. “The idea is that in order to lead a good life, we need to engage in certain self-cultivation practices,” such as training our minds to calm down so we can pay attention to the present.

    meditation_woman_GettyImages_1126494848.jpg
    Practicing compassion or loving-kindness doesn’t just help us make other people happier; it makes us happier, too.
    Getty Images
    Plus, whereas the language of oughts and obligations suggests a prescriptive or proselytizing attitude, Buddhist tradition has generally been more interested in inviting people to try meditation and discover its benefits for themselves, rather than in mandating adherence. (Not all people who identify as Buddhist practice meditation.)

    Jinpa said it would be naive to think someone could get everyone to meditate. “That won’t happen,” he told me. “So I’m interested in promoting the idea of compassion training that wouldn’t necessarily involve formal sitting meditation.” He pointed to his Compassion Cultivation Training as an example, saying it’s likelier to be widely adopted in part because it’s presented as secular.

    Meanwhile, to Davidson, the neuroscientist, the virtues you cultivate by meditating are so crucial as to make the practice feel almost obligatory.

    “I see this as a public health need,” he told me, using the analogy of brushing our teeth — something that takes only a few minutes a day, and something that virtually everyone does because we see it as important for our physical hygiene.

    “I think most people would agree their minds are just as important as their teeth. If we spent such a short time on our mind as we do on brushing our teeth, this world would be a different place,” Davidson said, because our emotional well-being would be improved. “So there is some sense of a moral obligation, almost.”

    But there’s a caveat: For a small minority of people, meditation can actually provoke adverse effects, like intense mental distress or impaired physical functioning. Brown University psychologist Willoughby Britton is studying these cases in a project called “Varieties of Contemplative Experience.” More research is still needed, but given that meditation practices might precipitate or exacerbate challenging conditions in some people, it would be wrong to say that absolutely everyone would do well to meditate.

    Is meditation really better than other activities at making us better people?
    Scientists are publishing more and more studies on meditation each year. But many of these studies are beset by methodological flaws, leading to overhyped results. Davidson calls this “neuromythology.”

    Some studies fail to replicate in other labs. Others fail to include active controls — they don’t test the potential benefits of a meditation regimen against those of a different regimen, like exercise or health education classes. Still others fail to disaggregate the data of participants who are relatively inexperienced with meditation and those who’ve had enough hours of practice to be considered experts.

    Even though there are methodological issues with some of the studies, others do hold up. And when you consider the hundreds of studies altogether, there is substantial evidence that meditation can help us become better people.

    So, the next question is: How much better? Is it worth spending hours on meditation when you could just get out there and start volunteering?

    “My response to that is, why pose it as an either/or question? I think both are important,” Davidson said. “I’d say the biggest bang for your buck would be to engage in a compassion meditation practice in your mind while you’re volunteering.”
     
  4. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
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    (cont)
    When we think about meditation, we often picture ourselves sitting on a cushion with our eyes closed. But it doesn’t have to look that way. It can just be a state of mind with which we do whatever else it is we’re doing: volunteering, commuting to work, drinking a cup of tea, washing the dishes.

    In fact, the Zen Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh is fond of saying, “Washing the dishes is like bathing a baby Buddha. The profane is the sacred. Everyday mind is Buddha’s mind.”

    As for me, I’ve found that I have enough bandwidth at the end of the day to sit down and close my eyes for a few minutes. So, for eight weeks, I sat in meditation every night.

    Then I went home to visit my family.

    I’m happy to report that we had our best, calmest visit in years. By the end of the holiday break, the number of fights I’d gotten into was a glorious, miraculous zero.

    It’s not that all of my reactive or unkind impulses magically disappeared. But whenever I felt myself starting to get snippy, I went into my old childhood bedroom and closed the door. I took a deep breath, and recalling the heaps of scientific evidence that had confronted me, I did what seemed to me like the reasonable response, a response so easy and so beneficial that it felt like a no-brainer.
    :- https://www.vox.com/future-perfect/2020/1/10/21013234/meditation-brain-neuroscience-moral-obligation
     
  5. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

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    TAOISM | The Power of Letting Go

    Einzelgänger
    Feb 13, 2020

    When you are anxious, you are living in the future.
    When you are depressed, you are living in the past.
    When you are at peace, you are living in the present.

    - Lao Tzu
     
  6. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

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    10 Minutes of Mindfulness Changes Your Reactions
    Tips for avoiding rash decisions and reaching thoughtful conclusions.
    Harvard Business Review |

    • Rasmus Hougaard
    • Jacqueline Carter
    • Gitte Dybkjaer

    Leaders across the globe feel that the unprecedented busyness of modern-day leadership makes them more reactive and less proactive. There is a solution to this hardwired, reactionary leadership approach: mindfulness.

    Having trained thousands of leaders in the techniques of this ancient practice, we’ve seen over and over again that a diligent approach to mindfulness can help people create a one-second mental space between an event or stimulus and their response to it. One second may not sound like a lot, but it can be the difference between making a rushed decision that leads to failure and reaching a thoughtful conclusion that leads to increased performance. It’s the difference between acting out of anger and applying due patience. It’s a one-second lead over your mind, your emotions, your world.

    Research has found that mindfulness training alters our brains and how we engage with ourselves, others, and our work. When practiced and applied, mindfulness fundamentally alters the operating system of the mind. Through repeated mindfulness practice, brain activity is redirected from ancient, reactionary parts of the brain, including the limbic system, to the newest, rational part of the brain, the prefrontal cortex.

    In this way mindfulness practice decreases activity in the parts of the brain responsible for fight-or-flight and knee-jerk reactions while increasing activity in the part of the brain responsible for what’s termed our executive functioning. This part of the brain, and the executive functioning skills it supports, is the control center for our thoughts, words, and actions. It’s the center of logical thought and impulse control. Simply put, relying more on our executive functioning puts us firmly in the driver’s seat of our minds, and by extension our lives.

    One second can be the difference between achieving desired results or not. One second is all it takes to become less reactive and more in tune with the moment. In that one second lies the opportunity to improve the way you decide and direct, the way you engage and lead. That’s an enormous advantage for leaders in fast-paced, high-pressure jobs.

    Here are five easily implemented tips to help you become more mindful:
    Practice 10 minutes of mindfulness training each day. Most people find mornings the best time to practice mindfulness, but you can do it any time of day. You can find a 10-minute guided mindfulness training program, a short mindfulness training manual, and a link to a free downloadable mindfulness app here. Try it for four weeks.
    Avoid reading email first thing in the morning. Our minds are generally most focused, creative, and expansive in the morning. This is the time to do focused, strategic work and have important conversations. If you read your email as you get up, your mind will get sidetracked and you’ll begin the slide toward reactive leadership. Making email your first task of the day wastes the opportunity to use your mind at its highest potential. Try waiting at least 30 minutes, or even an hour, after you get to work before checking your inbox.

     
  7. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
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    (cont.)
    Turn off all notifications. The notification alarms on your phone, tablet, and laptop are significant contributors to reactive leadership. They keep you mentally busy and put you under pressure, thereby triggering reactionary responses. They cause damage far more than they add value. Try this: For one week turn off all email notifications on all devices. Only check your email once every hour (or as often as responsibly needed for your job), but don’t compulsively check messages as they roll into your inbox.
    Stop multitasking. It keeps your mind full, busy, and under pressure. It makes you reactive. Try to maintain focus on a single task, and then notice when you find your mind drifting off to another task — a sign that your brain wishes to multitask. When this happens, mentally shut down all the superfluous tasks entering your thoughts while maintaining focus on the task at hand.
    Put it on your calendar. Schedule a check-in with yourself every two weeks to assess how well you’re doing with the previous four tips, or as a reminder to revisit this article to refresh your memory. Consider engaging one of your peers to do the same thing. This gives you a chance to assess each other, which can be both helpful and motivating.We encourage you to give these tips a try. Although mindfulness isn’t a magic pill, it will help you more actively select your responses and make calculated choices instead of succumbing to reactionary decisions.
    :- https://getpocket.com/explore/item/...anges-your-reactions?utm_source=pocket-newtab
     
  8. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
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    Peaceful Relaxing Music LIVE 24/7: Music for Deep Sleep. Music for Relaxation, Massage, Meditation

    Meditation Relax Music
     
  9. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
    14 กรกฎาคม 2010
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    17,301
    กระทู้เรื่องเด่น:
    165
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    The Amazing Power of Your Mind - A MUST SEE!

    Jeremy Bennett
    Apr 5, 2013
    Science Of The Soul - Full Documentary

    Syndicado TV
    Mar 29, 2019
     
  10. supatorn

    supatorn ผู้สนับสนุนเว็บพลังจิต ผู้สนับสนุนพิเศษ

    วันที่สมัครสมาชิก:
    14 กรกฎาคม 2010
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    It Takes Just 11 Minutes of Mindfulness to Cut Back on Your Drinking
    Monica Hunter-Hart
    Research shows that drinking alcohol can accelerate cognitive decline, scar your liver, and interfere with healthy decision making. Oh yeah, and give you a nasty hangover.


    So let’s say you want to cut down on your drinking, but don’t know how. A 2017 study from University College London (UCL) published in the International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology found that it might not be as hard as you think. In fact, it may only take 11 minutes of mindfulness.

    The UCL research team trained heavy drinkers in mindfulness techniques for 11 minutes and encouraged them to practice the methods through the following week. These participants ended up consuming 9.3 fewer units of alcohol that week than they had previously tended to drink.

    UCL defines mindfulness as “techniques like meditation, breathing and yoga” that “help you to become more aware of your thoughts and feelings so that you can manage them better.”

    The research involved 68 participants who identified as heavy drinkers but not alcoholics. Half of them were given the mindfulness instruction, in which they were encouraged to focus on their emotions and the physical sensations in their bodies. By paying attention to their cravings, researchers hoped that participants would learn to tolerate them. Mindfulness is meant to help people accept discomfort as transient so that they don’t feel compelled to immediately act upon it.

    In contrast, the other half of the group was trained in relaxation strategies, which acted as a “control condition that appeared to be just as credible as the mindfulness exercise for reducing alcohol use,” explains a press release. Neither the participants nor those conducting the study were aware of which strategy each person was taught.

    “We used a highly controlled experimental design, to ensure that any benefits of mindfulness training were not likely explained by people believing it was a better treatment,” says study co-author Dr. Tom Freeman.

    Those who were taught mindfulness ended up drinking 9.3 fewer units of alcohol over the next week. That’s about the same as three pints of beer, five shots of liquor, or a little under five standard glasses of wine. Those who learned relaxation methods did not see a significant reduction in their drinking.

    “Some might think that mindfulness is something that takes a long time to learn properly,” says study co-author Damla Irez, “so we found it encouraging that limited training and limited encouragement could have a significant effect to reduce alcohol consumption.”

    This is just a single study, so its findings aren’t necessarily conclusive; but because it takes only a few minutes to test it out for yourself, why not try? UCL hasn’t released the exact mindfulness training program they used on study participants, but they do offer a free, online 10-minute program for students and faculty here, and people who aren’t affiliated with the university can check out their other mindfulness resources here.

    “We’re hopeful that further studies will replicate our findings and provide more insight into how mindfulness training could be most effective in practice,” says co-author Shirley Serfaty. “Our team is also looking into how mindfulness might help people with other substance use problems.”

    Monica Hunter-Hart is a freelance writer based in Brooklyn. I'm especially enthusiastic about Turkish & American politics, music, and social justice.


    :- https://getpocket.com/explore/item/...ack-on-your-drinking?utm_source=pocket-newtab
     

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